An analysis of the endocrine system in the human anatomy

Some patients experience health problems as a result of the normal decline in hormones that can accompany aging. The primary function of these ductless glands is to secrete their hormones directly into the surrounding fluid.

This control system permits the prime functions of living organisms—growth, development, and reproduction—to proceed in an orderly, stable fashion; it is exquisitely self-regulating, so that any disruption of the normal internal environment by internal or external events is resisted by powerful countermeasures.

Endocrine glands and their hormones table

It makes insulin, which controls the amount of sugar in the bloodstream. The hypothalamus, thymus, heart, kidneys, stomach, small intestine, liver, skin, female ovaries, and male testes are other organs that contain cells with endocrine function. It releases hormones such as leptin, which affect appetite, and is also a site of oestrogen production. Endocrine surgeons treat endocrine disease through the removal, or resection, of the affected endocrine gland. Tumors — both benign and cancerous — can also disrupt the functions of the endocrine system, Myers explained. Hormones help to control many body functions, such as growth, repair and reproduction. His conclusions were based in part on observations obtained after he had injected himself with an extract of the testicle of a dog or of a guinea pig.

It releases thyroid hormone T4 and T3 which is required for metabolism and body homeostasis. The word endocrine derives from the Greek words "endo," meaning within, and "crinis," meaning to secrete, according to Health Mentor Online.

List of endocrine glands and their hormones

For example, seaweed, which is rich in iodine , was prescribed for the treatment of goitre enlargement of the thyroid gland. The endocrine system is a tightly regulated system that keeps the hormones and their effects at just the right level. From there, hormones diffuse into the bloodstream and may travel to distant body regions, where they elicit a response in target cells. The release of hormones is regulated by other hormones, proteins or neuronal signals. The kidney, for example, secretes hormones such as erythropoietin and renin. The endocrine system affects almost every organ and cell in the body, according to the Merck Manual. Milestones in the study of the endocrine system B. Local intercellular communication is the province of the paracrine, also called a paracrine factor, which is a chemical that induces a response in neighboring cells. Endocrinologists—medical doctors who specialize in this field—are experts in treating diseases associated with hormonal systems, ranging from thyroid disease to diabetes mellitus.

Later, American physiologist Walter Bradford Cannon — used the term homeostasis to describe this inner constancy. Hormones act on nearby tissues or are carried in the bloodstream to act on specific target organs and distant tissues.

endocrine system pdf

What is an endocrinologist? Endocrinologists typically specialize in one or two areas of endocrinology, such as diabetes or infertility.

endocrine system glands

Local intercellular communication is the province of the paracrine, also called a paracrine factor, which is a chemical that induces a response in neighboring cells. Infections and medications such as blood thinners can also cause adrenal deficiencies.

The pituitary gland is well known for its feedback loops. Perhaps the earliest demonstration of direct endocrinologic intervention in humans was the castration of men who could then be relied upon, more or less, to safeguard the chastity of women living in harems.

An analysis of the endocrine system in the human anatomy

It is controlled by TSH which is produced by the pituitary gland through a feed-back loop. Kidneys — produce erythropoietin EPO which stimulates red blood cell production, produce renin which is needed for blood pressure regulation and produce the active form of Vitamin D 1—25 dihydroxy vitamin D3 Gut — an increasing number of hormones in the gut are being researched and being understood to effect metabolism and appetite. Endocrine glands are ductless glands that secrete hormones. These include disorders of the pituitary gland that can affect growth and disorders of the thyroid gland that can result in a variety of metabolic problems. Internal and external Structures of the Endocrine System The endocrine system consists of cells, tissues, and organs that secrete hormones as a primary or secondary function. Thyroid gland — sits in the neck at the front of the windpipe. His conclusions were based in part on observations obtained after he had injected himself with an extract of the testicle of a dog or of a guinea pig. Jerome M. Neuro-endocrine tumours — these are rare to tumours of certain endocrine glands usually the adrenal gland, pancreas or small bowel. The released hormone then has its effect on other organs.
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Hormonal (endocrine) system